Vol. 37, issue 02, article # 7

Konovalov I. B., Golovushkin N. A. Model analysis of the formation of the semi-direct radiative effect of Siberian biomass burning aerosol in the Arctic. // Optika Atmosfery i Okeana. 2024. V. 37. No. 02. P. 127–137. DOI: 10.15372/AOO20240206.    PDF
Copy the reference to clipboard


Based on simulations performed with the CHIMERE chemistry transport model and WRF meteorological model, we analyzed the processes responsible for the formation of the semi-direct radiative effect (SDRE) of smoke from Siberian fires over snow-ice surfaces in the Arctic. Within the framework of the analysis, time and space averaged changes in the radiative fluxes, cloud parameters in different cloud layers, and some meteorological characteristics associated with cloud formation processes due to the radiative impact of Siberian biomass burning aerosol (SBBA) have been considered. The results show that the scattering of the solar radiation by SBBA particles increases the static stability of the atmosphere at altitudes of 2–4 km and suppresses vertical turbulent motions, which decreases the rate of water condensation, the optical thickness of clouds, and the ratio of the mixture of condensed water in the mid-level and partially low-level clouds. The decrease in the optical thickness of the clouds, in turn, causes the appearance of a positive SDRE of SBBA at the top and bottom of the atmosphere. Absorption of radiation by SBBA particles does not play a fundamental role in these processes, although it causes addition changes in the meteorological characteristics.


aerosol, smoke, chemistry-transport model, aerosol-radiation interaction



1. Bond T.C., Doherty S.J., Fahey D.W., Forster P.M., Berntsen T., De Angelo B.J., Flanner M.G., Ghan S., Kärcher B., Koch D., Kinne S., Kondo Y., Quinn P.K., Sarofim M.C., Schultz M.G., Schulz M., Venkataraman C., Zhang H., Zhang S., Bellouin N., Guttikunda S.K., Hopke P.K., Jacobson M.Z., Kaiser J.W., Klimont Z., Lohmann U., Schwarz J.P., Shindell D., Storelvmo T., Warren S.G., Zender C.S. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment // J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 2013. V. 118, N 11. P. 5380–5552. DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50171.
2. Twomey S. The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds // J. Atmos. Sci. 1977. V. 34. P. 1149–1152.
3. Hansen J., Sato M., Reudy R. Radiative forcing and climate response // J. Geophys. Res. 1997. V. 102. P. 6831–6864.
4. Andreae M.O., Rosenfeld D. Aerosol – cloud – precipitation interactions. Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols // Earth-Sci. Rev. 2008. V. 89. P. 13–41.
5. Lu Z., Zhang Z., Penner J. Biomass smoke from southern Africa can significantly enhance the brightness of stratocumulus over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2018. V. 115. P. 2924–2929.
6. Koch D., Del Genio A. Black carbon semi-direct effects on cloud cover: Review and synthesis // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2010. V. 10. P. 7685–7696.
7. Koren I., Martins J.V., Remer L.A., Afargan H. Smoke invigoration versus inhibition of clouds over the Amazon // Science. 2008. V. 321. P. 946–949.
8. Stjern C.W., Samset B.H., Myhre G., Forster P.M., Hodnebrog O., Andrews T., Boucher O., Faluvegi G., Iversen T., Kasoar M., Kharin V., Kirkevag A., Lamarque J.-F., Olivie D., Richardson T., Shawki D., Shindell D., Smith C.J., Takemura T., Voulgarakis A. Rapid adjustments cause weak surface temperature response to increased black carbon concentrations // J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 2017. V. 122, N 21. P. 11462–11481. DOI: 10.1002/2017JD027326.
9. Allen R.J., Amiri-Farahani A., Lamarque J.F., Smith C., Shindell D., Hassan T., Chung C.E. Observationally constrained aerosol – cloud semi-direct effects // Clim. Atmos. Sci. 2019. V. 2. P. 16. DOI: 10.1038/s41612-019-0073-9.
10. Ding K., Huang X., Ding A., Wang M., Su H., Kerminen V.-M., Petäjä T., Tan Z., Wang Z., Zhou D., Sun J., Liao H., Wang H., Carslaw K., Wood R., Zuidema P., Rosenfeld D., Kulmala M., Fu C., Pöschl U., Cheng Y., Andreae M.O. Aerosol-boundary-layer-monsoon interactions amplify semi-direct effect of biomass smoke on low cloud formation in Southeast Asia // Nat. Commun. 2021. V. 12. P. 6416. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-26728-4.
11. Huang X., Ding K., Liu J., Wang Z., Tang R., Xue L., Wang H., Zhang Q., Tan Z.-M., Fu C., Davis S.J., Andreae M.O., Ding A. Smoke-weather interaction affects extreme wildfires in diverse coastal regions // Science. 2023. V. 379. P. 457–461. DOI: 10.1126/science.add9843.
12. Schmale J., Zieger P., Ekman A.M.L. Aerosols in current and future Arctic climate // Nat. Clim. Chang. 2021. V. 11. P. 95–105. DOI: 10.1038/s41558-020-00969-5.
13. Rantanen M., Karpechko A.Y., Lipponen A., Nordling K., Hyvärinen O., Ruosteenoja K., Vihma T., Laaksonen A. The Arctic has warmed nearly four times faster than the globe since 1979 // Commun. Earth Environ. 2022. V. 3. P. 168. DOI: 10.1038/s43247-022-00498-3.
14. Evangeliou N., Balkanski Y., Hao W.M., Petkov A., Silverstein R.P., Corley R., Nordgren B.L., Urbanski S.P., Eckhardt S., Stohl A., Tunved P., Crepinsek S., Jefferson A., Sharma S., Nøjgaard J.K., Skov H. Wildfires in northern Eurasia affect the budget of black carbon in the Arctic – a 12-year retrospective synopsis (2002–2013) // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2016. V. 16. P. 7587–7604. DOI: 10.5194/acp-16-7587-2016.
15. Zhuravleva T.B., Nasrtdinov I.M., Vinogradova A.A. Pryamye radiatsionnye effekty dymovogo aerozolya v raione st. Tiksi (Rossiiskaya Arktika): predvaritel'nye rezul'taty // Optika atmosf. i okeana. 2019. V. 32, N 1. P. 29–38; Zhuravleva T.B., Nasrtdinov I.M., Vinogradova A.A. Direct radiative effects of smoke aerosol in the region of Tiksi station (Russian Arctic): Preliminary results // Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 2019. V. 32, N 3. P. 296–305. DOI: 10.1134/S1024856019030187.
16. Lisok J., Rozwadowska A., Pedersen J.G., Markowicz K.M., Ritter C., Kaminski J.W., Struzewska J., Mazzola M., Udisti R., Becagli S., Gorecka I. Radiative impact of an extreme Arctic biomass-burning event // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2018. V. 18. P. 8829–8848. DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-8829-2018.
17. Quaglia F.C., Meloni D., Muscari G., Di Iorio T., Ciardini V., Pace G., Becagli S., Di Bernardino A., Cacciani M., Hannigan J.W., Ortega I., Giorgio di Sarra A. On the radiative impact of biomass-burning aerosols in the Arctic: The August 2017 case study // Remote Sens. 2022. V. 14. P. 313. DOI: 10.3390/rs14020313.
18. Sand M., Berntsen T., von Salzen K., Flanner M., Langner J., Victor D. Response of arctic temperature to changes in emissions of short-lived climate forcers // Nat. Climate Change. 2016. V. 6. P. 286–289. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2880.
19. Lindeman J.D., Boybeyi Z., Gultepe I. An examination of the aerosol semi-direct effect for a polluted case of the ISDAC field campaign // J. Geophys. Res. 2011. V. 116. P. D00T10. DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015649.
20. Konovalov I.B., Golovushkin N.A., Zhuravleva T.B., Nasrtdinov I.M., Uzhegov V.N., Beekmann M. Primenenie model'nogo kompleksa CHIMERE-WRF dlya izucheniya radiatsionnykh vozdeistvii sibirskogo dymovogo aerozolya v Vostochnoi Arktike // Optika atmosf. i okeana. 2023. V. 36, N 2. P. 129–139; Konovalov I.B., Golovushkin N.A., Zhuravleva T.B., Nasrtdinov I.M., Uzhegov V.N., Beekmann M. Application of the CHIMERE-WRF model complex to study the radiative effects of Siberian smoke aerosol in the Eastern Arctic // Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 2023. V. 36, N 4. P. 337–347. DOI: 10.1134/S1024856023040085.
21. Nabat P., Somot S., Mallet M., Sevault F., Chiacchio M., Wild M. Direct and semi-direct aerosol radiative effect on the Mediterranean climate variability using a coupled regional climate system model // Clim. Dyn. 2015. V. 44. P. 1127–1155. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-014-2205-6.
22. Reid J.S., Eck T.F., Christopher S.A., Koppmann R., Dubovik O., Eleuterio D.P., Holben B.N., Reid E.A., Zhang J. A review of biomass burning emissions. Part III: Intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2005. V. 5. P. 827–849. DOI: 10.5194/acp-5-827-2005.
23. Menut L., Bessagnet B., Briant R., Cholakian A., Couvidat F., Mailler S., Pennel R., Siour G., Tuccella P., Turquety S., Valari M. The CHIMERE v2020r1 online chemistry-transport model // Geosci. Model Dev. 2021. V. 14. P. 6781–6811. DOI: 10.5194/gmd-14-6781-2021.
24. Skamarock W.C., Klemp J.B., Dudhia J., Gill D.O., Barker D.M., Duda M.G., Huang X.-Y., Wang W., Powers J.G. A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-475+STR. 2008. P. 1–113. DOI: 10.5065/D68S4MVH.
25. Briant R., Tuccella P., Deroubaix A., Khvorostyanov D., Menut L., Mailler S., Turquety S. Aerosol–radiation interaction modelling using online coupling between the WRF 3.7.1 meteorological model and the CHIMERE 2016 chemistry-transport model, through the OASIS3-MCT coupler // Geosci. Model Dev. 2017. V. 10. P. 927–944. DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-927-2017.
26. Konovalov I.B., Golovushkin N.A., Beekmann M., Siour G., Zhuravleva T.B., Nasrtdinov I.M., Kuznetsova I.N. On the importance of the model representation of organic aerosol in simulations of the direct radiative effect of Siberian biomass burning aerosol in the eastern Arctic // Atmos. Environ. 2023. V. 309. P. 119910. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2023.119910.
27. Menut L., Bessagnet B., Khvorostyanov D., Beekmann M., Blond N., Colette A., Coll I., Curci G., Foret G., Hodzic A., Mailler S., Meleux F., Monge J.-L., Pison I., Siour G., Turquety S., Valari M., Vautard R., Vivanco M.G. CHIMERE 2013: A model for regional atmospheric composition modeling // Geosci. Model Dev. 2013. V. 6. P. 981–1028.
28. CAMS – the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service Team: Global Fire Assimilation System v2.1, Fire Radiative Power, ECMWF. URL: http://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/data/ cams-gfas (last access: 14.05.2022).
29. Granier C., Darras S., Denier van der Gon H., Doubalova J., Elguindi N., Galle B., Gauss M., Guevara M., Jalkanen J.-P., Kuenen J., Liousse C., Quack B., Simpson D., Sindelarova K. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service Global and Regional Emissions (April 2019 version). Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, 2019. P. 54. URL: https://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/sites/default/files/2019-06/cams_emissions_general_ document_apr2019_v7.pdf (last access: 01.08.2023).
30. Hong S.-Y., Noh S.-Y., Dudhia J. A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes // Mon. Weather Rev. 2006. V. 134. P. 2318–2341. DOI: 10.1175/MWR3199.1.
31. Grell G.A., Devenyi D. A generalized approach to parameterizing convection combining ensemble and data assimilation techniques // Geophys. Res. Let. 2002. V. 29. P. 38-1–38-4. DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015311.
32. Thompson G., Field P.R., Rasmussen R.M., Hall W.D. Explicit forecasts of winter precipitation using an improved bulk microphysics scheme. Part II: Implementation of a new snow parameterization // Mon. Weather Rev. 2008. V. 136. P. 5095–5115. DOI: 10.1175/2008MWR2387.1.
33. Listowski C., Lachlan-Cope T. The microphysics of clouds over the Antarctic Peninsula – Part 2: Modelling aspects within Polar WRF // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2017. V. 17. P. 10195–10221. DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-10195-2017.
34. Konovalov I.B., Golovushkin N.A., Beekmann M., Andreae M.O. Insights into the aging of biomass burning aerosol from satellite observations and 3D atmospheric modeling: Evolution of the aerosol optical properties in Siberian wildfire plumes // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2021. V. 21. P. 357–392. DOI: 10.5194/acp-21-357-2021.
35. Robinson A.L., Donahue N.M., Shrivastava M.K., Weitkamp E.A., Sage A.M., Grieshop A.P., Lane T.E., Pierce J.R., Pandis S.N. Rethinking organic aerosols: Semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging // Science. 2007. V. 315. P. 1259–1262. DOI: 10.1126/science.1133061.
36. Zhuravleva T.B., Nasrtdinov I.M., Konovalov I.B., Golovushkin N.A., Beekmann M. Impact of the atmospheric photochemical evolution of the organic component of biomass burning aerosol on its radiative forcing efficiency: A box model analysis // Atmosphere. 2021. V. 12. 1555. DOI: 10.3390/atmos12121555.
37. Stull R.B. An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988. 666 p.
38. Tomasi C., Lanconelli C., Lupi A., Mazzola M. Dependence of direct aerosol radiative forcing on the optical properties of atmospheric aerosol and underlying surface / A. Kokhanovsky (ed.). Light Scattering Reviews 8. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013. P. 505–627.
39. Zhuravleva T.B., Nasrtdinov I.M., Konovalov I.B., Golovushkin N.A. Radiatsionnyi forsing dymovogo aerozolya s uchetom fotokhimicheskoi evolyutsii ego organicheskoi komponenty: vliyanie uslovii osveshchennosti i al'bedo podstilayushchei poverkhnosti // Optika atmosf. i okeana. 2022. VТ. 35, N 9. P. 748–758; Zhuravleva T.B., Nasrtdinov I.M., Konovalov I.B., Golovushkin N.A. Radiative forcing of smoke aerosol taking into account the photochemical evolution of its organic component: Impact of illumination conditions and surface albedo // Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 2022. V. 35, N S1. P. S113–S124. DOI: 10.1134/S1024856023010219.
40. Hines K.M., Bromwich D.H. Simulation of late summer Arctic clouds during ASCOS with Polar WRF // Mon. Weather Rev. 2017. V. 145. P. 521–541. DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-16-0079.1.
41. Keita S.A., Girard E., Raut J.-C., Pelon J., Blan­chet J.-P., Lemoine O., Onishi T. Simulating Arctic ice clouds during spring using an advanced ice cloud microphysics in the WRF model // Atmosphere. 2019. V. 10. P. 433. DOI: 10.3390/atmos10080433.
42. Hagman M., Svensson G., Angevine W.M. Forecast of low clouds over a snow surface in the Arctic using the WRF model // Mon. Weather Rev. 2021. V. 149. P. 2559–2579. DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-20-0396.1.
43. Cho H., Jun S.-Y., Ho C.-H., McFarquhar G. Simulations of winter Arctic clouds and associated radiation fluxes using different cloud microphysics schemes in the Polar WRF: Comparisons with CloudSat, CALIPSO, and CERES // J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 2020. V. 125. P. e2019JD031413. DOI: 10.1029/2019JD031413.
44. Dodson J.B., Taylor P.C., Moore R.H., Bromwich D.H., Hines K.M., Thornhill K.L., Corr C.A., Anderson B.E., Winstead E.L., Bennett J.R. Evaluation of simulated cloud liquid water in low clouds over the Beaufort Sea in the Arctic System Reanalysis using ARISE airborne in situ observations // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2021. V. 21. P. 11563–11580. DOI: 10.5194/acp-21-11563-2021.
45. Jin X., Hanesiak J., Barber D. Detecting cloud vertical structures from radiosondes and MODIS over Arctic first-year sea ice // Atmos. Res. 2007. V. 83. P. 64–76. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2006.03.003.
46. Johnson B.T., Shine K., Forster P. The semi-direct aerosol effect: Impact of absorbing aerosols on marine stratocumulus // Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 2004. P. 1407–1422. DOI: 10.1256/qj.03.61.
47. Mallet M., Solmon F., Nabat P., Elguindi N., Waquet F., Bouniol D., Sayer A.M., Meyer K., Roehrig R., Michou M., Zuidema P., Flamant C., Redemann J., Formenti P. Direct and semi-direct radiative forcing of biomass-burning aerosols over the southeast Atlantic (SEA) and its sensitivity to absorbing properties: A regional climate modeling study // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2020. V. 20. P. 13191–13216. DOI: 10.5194/acp-20-13191-2020.