Results of study of the aerosol optical depth (АОD) in the atmosphere of arid zone of Mongolia are discussed. The sites of the photometric observations were located on the territory of Gobi desert and included the Dalanzadgad, Sainshand, and Baruun-Urt stations. The seasonal and interannual AOD variations were analyzed using data of multiyear observations at AERONET station in Dalanzadgad for the period from 1997 to 2010. It is found that there is, on the average, high atmospheric transparency (average AOD in the region of 0.5 μm is 0.09) with a pronounced annual behavior in the Gobi desert; the maximum is observed in spring and summer months due to high frequency of occurrence of dust storms in this period, and the minimum is observed in winter months. The fraction of finely dispersed aerosol is large during summer months compared to other seasons. We analyzed the spectral features of the atmospheric AOD under the conditions of dust outbreaks and the spatial differences in different climatic zones: under the conditions of dry climate of arid zone of Mongolia and temperate climatic zone of Baikal region.
solar photometry, aerosol optical depth, Gobi desert, dust