The peculiarities of nonlinear spectroscopic effects use for sensing optical parameters of the atmospheric aerosol are investigated taking the effect of saturation of resonance absorption as an example. The direct problem was simulated by lidar sounding equations and the equation of a plane wave propagation, and by calculating nonlinear interaction with a resonant medium component and the linear one with a nonresonant component. The inverse problem is reduced to a minimization. Use of various nonlinear spectroscopic effects is studied. The potentialities of their use are analyzed with the corresponding goal (minimized) function.