Vol. 5, issue 08, article # 10

Veber V. L. The effect of sea surface roughness on the image quality of an underwater object for observations through the sea surface. // Atmospheric and oceanic optics. 1992. V. 5. No. 08. P. 560-564. PDF
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Abstract:

The effect of the wind–driven sea waves on the optical transfer function (OTF) and point spread function (PSF) of an optical system of observations through the air––water interface is analyzed theoretically. It is shown that with directional illumination the effects of radiation double passage through a random sea surface lead to specific distortions in the form of the point spread function in comparison with diffuse illumination.