The dynamics of primary vegetation and forming of primary soils were studied at the young moraines of the headwater Aktru (the Severo-Chuisky Range, Central Altai Mountains, Russia) under different climatic conditions. Authors separated three stages of succession in a dynamic succession series. Duration and particularity of development of primary communities were found for all the stages for the different altitudinal belts. Soil development was studied in severe conditions of periglacial moraines. Successional forming of pioneer soils is bound with development of vegetation cover. It is established that the pioneer stage of soil development under such conditions lasts about 150 years and finishes by forming of juvenile soils. Several aspects of relationship between climate and forming of mountain ecosystem were also reviewed.
climate, young moraines, vegetation dynamics, forming of primary soils, Severo-Chuisky Range, Central Altai Mountains