The quality of image of an extraterrestrial object formed by an astronomical optical system through the turbulent atmosphere is analyzed. Relative increase of the Strehl parameter at adaptive correction is calculated using the technique of laser guide stars. The efficiency of adaptive correction of distortions for different types of guide sources is compared. A specialized wave front sensor is applied, which operates with the use of a wide laser beam as a reference wave and allows the continuous phase of the reference wave to be reconstructed. The calculations are performed for different models of the vertical dependence of the structure parameter of refractive index of the turbulent atmosphere. The estimates obtained show that the formed field is quite close to a plane wave in its parameters. That is why we obtain high correction and large increase of the Strehl parameter, which indicates indirectly a good correction of higher modal components, which are poorly corrected with the use of traditional schemes of formation of a laser guide star with the aid of a focused laser beam. The comparative calculations for different models of the vertical profile of the structure parameter of refractive index have shown serious differences in the behavior of correlation radii for plane and spherical waves.