We describe the multilevel system for monitoring of the greenhouse atmospheric components as well as of the components oxidizing the atmosphere and present some results obtained. The system has been developed under the international research program. The monitoring is being carried out in three research areas: 1) determination of the emission of greenhouse gases at the Iksinskoye (Bakcharskoye) marshland; 2) study of the fluxes in the ground atmospheric layer (monitoring of the vertical distribution of the greenhouse gases is performed using tall instrumented towers in Tomsk Region, Yamalo-Nenetskii Autonomous District, Tyumen Region, and Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District; 3) study of the spatial distribution. Measurements of the vertical distribution of the greenhouse gases in the boundary layer of the atmosphere are being performed weekly from onboard an AN-2 aircraft, while the measurements aimed at estimating the regional contribution to the global balance from onboard an AN-30 aircraft. In 2006 studies under YAK-1 Project have been started. The studies under this project are being carried out from onboard an AN-30 aircraft, equipped with the same instrumentation, in flights along the route from Novosibirsk to Yakutsk and back to Novosibirsk at different flight heights along the route.