We present some results on the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the wavelength region from 0.34 to 4 µm, aerosol number concentration, and mass content of soot in the near-water atmospheric layer studied during nineteenth mission of Akademik Sergey Vavilov R/V (Atlantic Ocean, October-December 2004). Statistical characteristics of aerosol from separate regions of the Atlantic Ocean (tropical zone, coastal region of Cape Town, Southern Ocean, etc.) are discussed. Very low aerosol and soot content has been observed in the regions southward of 35°S; average aerosol characteristics are found to be 0.05 for AOD in the visible range (0.55 µm), 0.04 for AOD in IR (1.2-4 µm), 5.1 cm-3 for number concentration of the near-water aerosol (r = 0.2-5 µm), and 0.04 µg/m3 for the mass concentration of soot. It is shown that it is characteristic of the atmosphere of Southern Hemisphere the observed latitudinal dependence of AOD and soot content (decrease with the growing latitude). We consider interrelations among aerosol characteristics of the near-water layer and of the entire atmospheric column.