Vol. 35, issue 08, article # 9

Stepanov E. V., Andreev V. V., Konovaltseva L. V., Kasoev S. G. Surface ozone over Moscow during the COVID-19 pandemic. // Optika Atmosfery i Okeana. 2022. V. 35. No. 08. P. 655–663. DOI: 10.15372/AOO20220809 [in Russian].
Copy the reference to clipboard


The results of surface ozone monitoring in the atmosphere of Moscow in 2020 and 2021 under lockdown associated with the COVID-19 pandemic are presented. These two years significantly differed in meteorological conditions and the level of anthropogenic impact on the environment. A relatively low for metropolis concentrations of surface O3 were observed in Moscow in 2020. The annual average value was 28 mg/m3, and the annual maximum was 185 mg/m3. That was due to a combination of relatively cool weather with low levels of pollutants in the air. Several intense heat waves were observed in the metropolis under conditions of a blocking anticyclone during summer 2021, daytime temperatures rose to 35 °C. Along with higher air pollution, that resulted in unusually high O3 concentrations. The annual average value was 48 mg/m3, and the annual maximum was 482 mg/m3.


atmosphere, air, surface ozone, maximum permissible concentration, surface air layer, troposphere, ozone precursor, pandemic, COVID-19, lockdown


  1. Belan B.D. Ozon v troposfere. Tomsk: IOA SO RAN, 2010. 487 p.
  2. Isidorov V.V. Organicheskaya himiya atmosfery. SPb.: Himizdat, 2001. 237 с.
  3. Вlake A.J., Carver J.H. The evolutionary role of atmospheric ozone // J. Atmos. Sci. 1977. V. 34, N 5. P. 720–728.
  4. Walker J.C.G. The early history of oxygen and ozone in the atmosphere // Pure Appl. Geophys. 1978. V. 117. P. 498–512.
  5. Roshchina V.V., Roshchina V.D. Ozone and Plant Cell. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2003. 240 p
  6. Roshchina V.V., Mel'nikova E.V. Vklad ozona i aktivnyh form kisloroda v razvitie kletochnyh sistem rastenij // Materialy mezhdunar. konf. «Mitohondrii, kletki i aktivnye formy kisloroda» / pod red. V.P. Skulacheva, V.P. Zinchenko. Pushchino: Biologicheskij centr RAN, 2000. P. 127–129.
  7. Roshchina V.V. Chapter 2. Evolutionary сonsiderations of neurotransmitters in Microbial, Plant and Animal Cells // Microbial Endocrinology. Interkingdom Signaling in Infectious Disease and Health / M. Lyte, P.P.E. Freestone (eds.). New York, Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2010. P. 17–52.
  8. Zanardi I., Borrelli E., Valacchi G., Travagli V., Bocci V. Ozone: A multifaceted molecule with unexpected therapeutic activity // Current Med. Chem. 2016. V. 23, N 4. P. 304–314.
  9. Smith N.L., Wilson A.L., Gandhi J., Vatsia S., Ali-Khan S. Ozone therapy: An overview of pharmacodynamics, current research, and clinical utility // Med. Gas Res. 2017. V. 7, N 3. P. 212–219.
  10. Zhang J., Wei Y., Fang Z. Ozone pollution: A major health hazard worldwide // Front. Immunol. 2019. V. 10. P. 2518.
  11. Ebi K.L., McGregor G. Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts // Environ. Health Perspect. 2008. V. 116. P. 1449–1455.
  12. Nuvolone D., Petri D., Voller F. The effects of ozone on human health // Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2018. V. 25. P. 8074–88.
  13. Koman P.D., Mancuso P. Ozone exposure, cardiopulmonary health, and obesity: A substantive review // Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2017. V. 30. P. 1384–1395.
  14. Kotel'nikov S.N. Osnovnye mekhanizmy vzaimodejstviya ozona s zhivymi sistemami i osobennosti problemy prizemnogo ozona dlya Russia // Tr. Instituta obshchej fiziki im. A.M. Prohorova. V. 71. Problema troposfernogo ozona / pod red. E.V. Stepanova. M.: Nauka, 2015. p. 10–41.
  15. Turner M.C., Jerrett M., Pope III C.A., Krewski D., Gapstur S.M., Diver W.R., Beckerman B.S., Marshall J.D., Su J., Crouse D.L. Burnett R.T. Long-term ozone exposure and mortality in a large prospective study // Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care. Med. 2016. V. 193. P. 1134–1142.
  16. Kotel'nikov S.N., Stepanov E.V. Vliyanie prizemnogo ozona na zdorov'e naseleniya // Tr. Instituta obshchej fiziki im. A.M. Prohorova. V. 71. Problema troposfernogo ozona / pod red. E.V. Stepanova. M.: Nauka, 2015. P. 72–93.
  17. Kotelnikov S.N., Stepanov E.V., Ivashkin V.T. Prizemnye kontsentratsii ozona i zdorov'e razlichnyh vozrastnyh grupp naseleniya v g. Moskva letom 2010 year // Izv. Geofizicheskie protsessy i biosfera. 2019. V. 18, N 4, P. 26–38.
  18. Dingenen R.V., Dentener F.J., Raes F., Krol M.C., Emberson L., Cofala J. The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation // Atmos. Environ. 2009. V. 43. P. 604–618.
  19. Felzer B.S., Cronin T., Reilly J.M., Melillo J.M., Wang X. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops // Comptes Rendus Geosci. 2007. V. 339. P. 784–798.
  20. Elanskij N.F., Smirnova O.I., Koncentraciya ozona i okislov azota v prizemnom vozduhe g. Moskvy // Izv. RAN. Fiz. atmosf. i okeana. 1997. V. 33, N 5. P. 597–611.
  21. Zvyagincev A.M., Kuznecova I.N. Izmenchivost' prizemnogo ozona v okrestnostyah Moskvy: rezul'taty desyatiletnih regulyarnyh nablyudenij // Izv. RAN. Fiz. atmosf. i okeana. 2002. V. 38, N 4. P. 486–495.
  22. Zvyagincev A.M., Belikov I.B., Egorov V.I., Elanskij N.F., Kruchenitskij G.M., Kuznetsova I.N., Nikolaeva A.N., Obuhova Z.V., Skorohod A.I. Polozhitel'nye anomalii prizemnogo ozona v iyune-avguste 2002 year v Moskve i ee okrestnostyah // Izv. RAN. Fiz. atmosf. i okeana. 2004. V. 40, N 1. P. 75–86.
  23. Elanskij N.F., Mohov I.I., Belikov I.B., Berezina E.V., Elohov A.S., Ivanov V.A., Pankratova N.V., Postylyakov O.V., Safronov A.N., Skorohod A.I., Shumskij R.A. Gazovye primesi v atmosfere nad Moskvoj letom 2010 year // Izv. RAN. Fiz. atmosf. i okeana. 2011. V. 47, N 6. P. 729–738.
  24. Elanskij N.F., Lokoshchenko M.A., Trifanova A.V., Belikov I.B., Skorohod A.I. O soderzhanii malyh gazovyh primesej v prizemnom sloe atmosfery nad Moskvoj // Izv. RAN. Fiz. atmosf. i okeana. 2015. V. 51, N 1. P. 39–51.
  25. Adam M.G., Tran P.T.M., Balasubramanian R. Air quality changes in cities during the COVID-19 lockdown: A critical review // Atmos. Res. 2021. V. 264. P. 105823.
  26. Agarwal A., Kaushik A., Kumar S., Kumar R. Comparative study on air quality status in Indian and Chinese cities before and during the COVID-19 lockdown period // Air Quality, Atmos. Health. 2020.
  27. Yang M., Chen L., Msigwa G., Tang K.H.D., Pow-Seng Yap P.-S. Implications of COVID-19 on global environmental pollution and carbon emissions with strategies for sustainability in the COVID-19 era // Sci. Total Environ. 2022. V. 809. P. 151657.
  28. Mertens M., Jöckel P., Matthes S., Nützel M., Volker Grewe V., Sausen R. COVID-19 induced lower-tropospheric ozone changes // Environ. Res. Lett. 2021. V. 16, N 6. P. 064005.
  29. Bouarar I., Gaubert B., Brasseur G.P., Steinbrecht W., Doumbia T., Tilmes S., Liu Y., Stavrakou T., Deroubaix A., Darras S., Granier C., Lacey F., Muller J.-F., Shi X., Elguindi N., Wang T. Ozone anomalies in the free troposphere during the COVID-19 pandemic // Geophys. Res. Lett. 2021. V. 48, N 16. P. e2021GL094204.
  30. Peralta O., Ortínez-Alvarez A., Torres-Jardón R., Suárez-Lastra M., Castro T., Ruíz-Suárez L.G. Ozone over Mexico City during the COVID-19 pandemic // Sci. Total Environ. 2021. V. 20. P. 143183.
  31. Hashim B.M., Al-Naseri S.K., Al-Maliki A., Al-Ansari N. Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations and assessing air quality changes in Baghdad, Iraq // Sci. Total Environ. 2021. V. 754. P. 141978.
  32. He C., Hong S., Zhang L., Mu H., Xin A., Zhou Y., Liu J., Liu N., Su Y., Tian Ya, Ke B., Wang Y., Yang L. Global, continental, and national variation in PM2.5, O3, and NO2 concentrations during the early 2020 COVID-19 lockdown // Atmos. Pollut. Res. 2021. V. 12. P. 136–145.
  33. Siciliano B., Dantas G., da Silva C.M., Arbilla G. Increased ozone levels during the COVID-19 lockdown: Analysis for the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil // Sci. Total Environ. 2020. V. 737. P. 139765.
  34. Wang L., Li M., Yu S., Chen X., Li Z., Jiang L., Xia Y., Li J., Liu W., Li P., Lichtfouse E., Rosenfeld D., Seinfeld J.H. Unexpected rise of ozone in urban and rural areas, and sulfur dioxide in rural areas during the coronavirus city lockdown in Hangzhou, China: Implications for air quality // Environ. Chem. Lett. 2020. V. 18. P. 1713–1723.
  35. Steinbrecht W., Kubistin D., Plass-Dülmer C., Davies J., Tarasick D.W., von der Gathen P., Deckelmann H., Jepsen N., Kivi R., Lyall N., Palm M., Notholt J., Kois B., Oelsner P., Allaart M., Piters A., Gill M., Van Malderen R., Delcloo A.W., Sussmann R., Mahieu E., Servais C., Romanens G., Stübi R., Ancellet G., Godin-Beekmann S., Yamanouchi S., Strong K., Johnson B., Cullis P., Petropavlovskikh I., Hannigan J.W., Hernandez J.-L., Rodriguez A.D., Nakano T., Chouza F., Leblanc T., Torres C., Garcia O., Röhling A.N., Schneider M., Blumenstock T., Tully M., Paton-Walsh C., Jones N., Querel R., Strahan S., Stauffer R.M., Thompson A.M., Inness A., Engelen R., Chang K.-L., Cooper O.R. COVID-19 crisis reduces free tropospheric ozone across the Northern Hemisphere // Geophys. Res. Lett. 2021. V. 48, N 5. DOI: 10.1029/2020GL091987.
  36. Fu S., Guo M., Fan L., Deng Q., Han D., Wei Y., Luo J., Qin G., Cheng J. Ozone pollution mitigation in guangxi (south China) driven by meteorology and anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown // Environ. Pollut. 2021. V. 272. P. 115927.
  37. Kotelnikov S.N., Stepanov E.V. Anomalous dynamics of tropospheric ozone in the spring of 2020 in Central Russia // Bull. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 2021. V. 48, N 3. P. 92–96.
  38. Andreev V.V., Arshinov M.Yu., Belan B.D., Belan S.B., Davydov D.K., Demin V.I., Elanskij N.F., Zhamsueva G.S., Zayahanov A.S., Ivlev G.A., Kozlov A.V., Kotel'nikov S.N., Kuznecova I.N., Lapchenko V.A., Lezina E.A., Postylyakov O.V., Savkin D.E., Senik I.A., Stepanov E.V., Tolmachev G.N., Fofonov A.V., Chelibanov I.V., Chelibanov V.P., Shirotov V.V., Shukurov K.A. Prizemnaya koncentraciya ozona na territorii Russia vo vtorom polugodii 2020 year // Optika atmosf. i okeana. 2021. V. 34, N 4. P. 292–301; Andreev V.V., Arshinov M.Yu., Belan B.D., Davydov D.K., Elansky N.F., Zhamsueva G.S., Zayakhanov A.S., Ivlev G.A., Kozlov A.V., Kotel’nikov S.N., Kuznetsova I.N., Lapchenko V.A., Lezina E.A., Postylyakov O.V., Savkin D.E., Senik I.A., Stepanov E.V., Tolmachev G.N., Fofonov A.V., Chelibanovi I.V., Chelibanov V.P., Shirotov V.V. Surface Ozone concentration over Russian territory in the first half of 2020 // Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 2020. V. 33, N 6. P. 671–681.
  39. Gidromettsentr Russia. M., 2022. URL: https:// meteoinfo.ru/ (data obrashcheniya: 12.04.2022).
  40. Andreev V.V., Arshinov M.Yu., Belan B.D., Belan S.B., Davydov D.K., Demin V.I., Dudorova N.V., Elanskij N.F., Zhamsueva G.S., Zayahanov A.S., Ivlev G.A., Kozlov A.V., Kotel'nikov S.N., Kuznecova I.N., Lapchenko V.A., Lezina E.A., Obolkin V.A., Postylyakov O.V., Potemkin V.L., Savkin D.E., Senik I.A., Stepanov E.V., Tolmachev G.N., Fofonov A.V., Hodzher T.V., Chelibanov I.V., Chelibanov V.P., Shirotov V.V., Shukurov K.A. Koncentraciya troposfernogo ozona na territorii Russia v 2021 year // Optika atmosf. i okeana. 2022. V. 35, N 7. P. 559–571.
  41. Chelibanov V.P., Kotel'nikov S.N., Smirnov N.V., Yasenko E.A. Perspektiva primeneniya programmno-apparatnogo kompleksa PAE-8816 pri postroenii global'noj sistemy monitoringa atmosfernogo vozduha // Biosfera. 2015. V. 7, N 1. P. 119–123.
  42. Kotel'nikov S.N., Stepanov E.V. Monitoring troposfernogo ozona v atmosfere megapolisov i malourbanizirovannyh rajonov // Tr. Instituta obshchej fiziki im. A.M. Prohorova. V. 71. Problema troposfernogo ozona / pod red. E.V. Stepanova. M.: Nauka, 2015. 189 p.
  43. Kotelnikov S.N., Stepanov E.V. Positive Trend of surface ozone in the North of the Privolzhskii Federal Region of the Russian Federation // Bull. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 2019. V. 45. P. 24–28.