We propose a method for determining vertical profiles of the ratio between HDO and H2O content in the atmosphere from IR atmospheric transmission spectra, obtained with a ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. We have used linear regression between the coefficients of series expansion of the HDO profiles in eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of a priori profiles and coefficients of expansion of the spectra in eigenvectors of the spectral covariance matrix used for determination of the HDO/H2O vertical profile from the observed spectra of atmospheric transmission. The error of the method was estimated from closed model experiments with synthetic FTIR spectra, and its absolute value varies from 5 to 65‰ over the profile. For the relative content of heavy water in the entire atmospheric column the absolute error of the method did not exceed 8‰. For testing this method against the field measurements, we used data of FTIR spectrometer operated in Alaska. The values of the relative content of the heavy water in the atmosphere, taken from the samples of atmospheric transmission spectra in Alaska, observed in 2000-2004, have been compared with data on HDO/H2O ratio, obtained using the atmospheric general circulation models.