In this paper, we consider specific features of the daily dynamics and vertical bioluminescence distribution of the luminous phytoplankton in the coastal zone of the Sea of Japan in the period of algae bloom. For estimation of algae luminescence intensity, we apply the method based on measurement of the integrated bioluminescence signal of plankton netting samples at luminescence stimulation with ultrasound. It is shown, that this method allows one to perform a clear separation of the bioluminescence signals from phyto- and zooplankton. It has allowed us to establish daily rhythm of the luminous phytoplankton division, as well as to obtain the characteristics of its vertical distribution and to show that no daily vertical migration observed in the period of full algae bloom. It is shown that modification of their vertical distribution is caused by a significant survival of the young-grown cells.